Victoire du 8 Mai 1945

La Seconde Guerre mondiale se termine officiellement en Europe le 8 mai 1945, à 23h01, au lendemain de la capitulation sans condition de l'Allemagne nazie.

Défaite totale de l'Allemagne nazie

A partir de la bataille d' El-Alamein (23 octobre 1942), les armées allemandes ont subi défaite sur défaite et reculé sur tous les fronts. Le 25 avril 1945, les troupes soviétiques et anglo-américaines font leur jonction au milieu de l'Allemagne, sur l'Elbe, à Torgau.

Hitler, terré dans son bunker de Berlin, avec son dernier carré de fidèles, se suicide le 30 avril.

Il revient à son successeur, l'amiral Dönitz (ou Doenitz), de demander la cessation des combats aux puissances alliées, les Anglo-Saxons et les Soviétiques.

Karl Dönitz envoie le général Alfred Jodl, chef d'état-major de la Wehrmacht, à Reims (France), au quartier général des forces alliées du général Dwight Eisenhower.

Celui-ci est installé dans le grand bâtiment de briques rouges de l'École professionnelle de Reims (c'est aujourd'hui un collège qui porte le nom de lycée Roosevelt).

Signature de la capitulation à Reims (7 mai)

Le général Alfred Jodl (55 ans) signe dans la nuit du 7 au 8 mai, à 2h 41, la capitulation sans condition de l'Allemagne ... Quelques mois plus tard, il sera déféré au Tribunal de Nuremberg et condamné à mort pour avoir contresigné des ordres contraires au droit international (exécution d'otages ou de prisonniers). Il sera pendu le 16 octobre 1946.

Côté vainqueurs, l'acte de capitulation est signé par le général Walter Bodell-Smith, chef d'état-major du général Eisenhower, commandant suprême des Alliés, et le général soviétique Ivan Sousloparov. Le général français François Sevez, chef d'état-major du général de Gaulle, est invité à le contresigner à la fin de la cérémonie en qualité de simple témoin.

La cessation des combats est fixée au lendemain 8 mai, à 23h 01 (mais certaines troupes allemandes résisteront au-delà de cette date, notamment dans la place forte de Saint-Nazaire).

Ratification de la capitulation à Berlin (8 mai)

Pour Staline, l'allié soviétique, il ne suffit pas que la capitulation ait été signée à Reims, dans la zone occupée par les Anglo-Saxons. Il faut aussi qu'elle soit ratifiée à Berlin, au coeur du IIIe Reich, et accessoirement dans la zone d'occupation soviétique. Cette formalité est accomplie le lendemain 8 mai 1945, à 15 heures, au quartier général des forces soviétiques du maréchal Joukov, dans le quartier de Karlshorst.

Après cela, les chefs d'État et de gouvernement alliés, dont le général de Gaulle, peuvent annoncer simultanément sur les radios la cessation officielle des hostilités en Europe. Aux États-Unis, l'annonce de la victoire revient au président Harry Truman, son prédécesseur Franklin Roosevelt étant mort d'épuisement et de maladie le mois précédent, le 14 avril 1945.

La capitulation n'est pas la paix

La guerre ne se termine cependant pas avec la capitulation de l'Allemagne nazie... Le Japon de l'empereur Showa, allié de Hitler, poursuit un combat désespéré contre les Américains dans l'océan Pacifique. Il faudra les deux explosions atomiques de Hiroshima et Nagasaki, les 6 et 9 août 1945, pour amener ce pays à résipiscence.

C'est seulement avec la capitulation du Japon le 2 septembre 1945, près de quatre mois après celle de l'Allemagne, que prend donc véritablement fin la Seconde Guerre mondiale.

La France, bien qu'officiellement retirée de la guerre depuis l'armistice du 22 juin 1940, a été présente lors de la signature de l'acte de capitulation, aux côtés de l'Angleterre, des États-Unis et de l'URSS.

Charles de Gaulle avait convaincu Winston Churchill d'accorder ce privilège à son pays. Pour le chef de la France libre, le conflit qui s'achevait avait commencé non pas en 1939 mais en 1914. Au terme de cette guerre de trente ans, il estimait que son pays avait bien mérité de la Victoire.

Le gouvernement du général de Gaulle est donc représenté à Berlin par le chef de la 1ère armée française, le général Jean de Lattre de Tassigny. Lorsque celui-ci exige qu'un drapeau français soit joint aux drapeaux anglais, américain et soviétique dans la salle de capitulation, il s'attire cette réflexion d'un officier britannique : «Et pourquoi pas le drapeau chinois ?»

Le maréchal Keitel, commandant en chef de l'armée allemande, s'exclame pour sa part en voyant le drapeau français : «Ah, il y a aussi des Français ! Il ne manquait plus que cela !»

Négligeant de commémorer la capitulation du 7 mai, à Reims, à laquelle ils n'ont eu aucune part, les Français ont choisi par la suite de commémorer exclusivement le 8 mai 1945. En 1975, le président Giscard d'Estaing a prétendu mettre un terme à cette commémoration par souci de réconciliation avec les Allemands... mais au grand scandale des associations d'anciens combattants.

En 1981, le 8 mai est redevenu férié... et chômé qui plus est.

 L'attention portée à cette célébration paraît d'autant plus incongrue que le 8 mai 1945 est aussi marqué par la répression sanglante de Sétif. 

À noter que ni les Anglais, ni les Américains ne chôment le 8 mai bien qu'ils aient les meilleures raisons du monde de commémorer cet anniversaire. Quant aux Russes, c'est le 9 mai qu'ils célèbrent la capitulation de l'Allemagne nazie, la cessation des combats ayant été enregistrée ce jour-là à Moscou en raison du décalage horaire... La France est de la sorte le seul pays qui commémore le 8 mai 1945 par un jour férié et chômé !

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